Straight trunk up to 12 in diameter with somewhat drooping branches. Picea mariana the black spruce is a north american species of spruce tree in the pine familyit is widespread across canada found in all 10 provinces and all 3 arctic territoriesits range extends into northern parts of the united states.
It has descending branches with dark bluish green needles and upturned ends.
Black spruce tree bark. Population levels oscillate sometimes reaching extreme outbreak levels that can cause extreme defoliation of and damage to spruce trees. Click on the images help you identify an black spruce. The bark is grayish brown with thin scales.
If theyre are attached individually to branches have 4 sides and roll easily between your fingers its a spruce. Small violet colored cones are produced and sit upright until fertilization. The black spruce is a medium sized tree with a narrow shape like a church spire.
The bark of the black spruce is thin scaly and dark greenish brown. The black spruce is called a transcontinental species its found from one end of canada to the other and all across ontario. The eastern spruce budworm choristoneura fumiferana is a major pest of spruce trees in forests throughout canada and the eastern united states.
Black spruce cones remain partially closed and disperse seed for several years providing an adequate supply of seeds to reproduce the stand whenever fire occurs. Two of the main host plants are black spruce and white spruce. To identify spruce trees first look at the needles.
Black spruce picea mariana. Often associated with tamarack balsam fir and white cedar. Where it is found.
Then check the cones which on spruce trees have smooth thin scales and are easy to bend. Black spruce cones are egg shaped 2 to 3 centimetres long and are dark brown. Black spruce is a small narrow evergreen tree with a spire like crown.
They are found at the top of the tree and may stay on the tree for up to 30 years. It is believed that red and black spruces hybridize and some authorities consider the red and black spruces to be variations of a single species there is also speculation that black spruce hybridizes with white spruce but not verified. Lower limbs sweep the ground.
It is an excellent choice for cold northern climates and tolerant of wet sites. Mature tree usually reaches a height of 20 to 30 although under favorable conditions it can attain a height of 70 to 80. This conifer exhibits dense foliage with very short blue green needles and brownish gray bark that is thin and scaly.
In alaska the great lakes region and the upper northeastit is a frequent part of the biome known as taiga or boreal forest. You can also look at the shape of the branches which will be bushy full and upturned if its a spruce. Black spruce nourishes creatures such as the woodland caribou or boreal caribou who unlike other caribou have chosen to stay within the tree lines as opposed to the tundra.
The clusters found at the tips of the black spruce are often caused by squirrels feverishly picking their cones. Black spruce trees in contrast to other spruces grow tall and narrowly as opposed to conically.